Brothers wiki site ( Wikipedia Muslim Brotherhood )
Prepared by: Ahmed Salama
Obama in Brief
- Achieved a landslide victory to his opponent John McCain and that his victory in some strongholds of Republicans such as Ohio and Virginia on 4 November 2008 , he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009 match his efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples, before completing a year in power.
- He graduated from Columbia College at Columbia University and Harvard Law School, and was one of the first African-American assume the presidency of the Harvard Law, as he was working in social activities in Chicago before earning his law firm, and worked as a consultant for Civil Rights in Chicago, and has taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004 .
- Won the three periods in the Senate, Illinois, in the period from 1997 to 2004 , following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the House of Representatives in 2000 ran for the Senate in 2004 , and was able to have a seat on the council in March 2004 , and could this immediately attract the attention of the Democratic Party, and it was his television speech, which was broadcast locally during the Democratic National Convention in July of 2004 made him a rising star on the national level in the party, and after he was elected to the Senate in November 2004 and won the largest proportion in the history of Illinois.
- Began to run competitions presidential election in February of 2007 , after a campaign highly competitive within the Democratic Party in order to get the party nomination to contest the presidential election was able to get the nomination of his party after defeating his rival, Hillary Clinton , becoming the first presidential candidate of African descent Party U.S. large, in the general election on November 4, 2008 he was able to defeat the Republican candidate John McCain, and a monument president on January 20, 2009 .
- During his election campaign opened a blog in Hebrew, to counter the image of anti -Israel and that affected him during his campaign .. (1) , was opened this blog in Tabous one Israeli sites popularity has published the newspaper Yediot Aharonot, location and Ent its story says it Blog Obama official, and picked up and the news media, but several days after the publication of the Obama campaign office denial about the fact that this blog official said it is an individual initiative, the article was amended at the site and Ent .. (2)
- In a speech before the AIPAC pro -Israel stated that "Jerusalem will remain the capital of Israel and must remain unified, "which raised the ire of the Arab press, and the leaders of Palestinian criticism of his remarks, in an interview later on CNN asked about the right of Palestinians to claim Jerusalem in the future He replied that it is up to negotiation between the parties to the conflict, but he returned and confirmed the legitimate right of Israel in this city .. (3)
- On 27 October 2008 security forces of America in Tennessee South arrested two of the "neo-Nazi" extremists eggs were planning to assassinate him as the first African American to run for president in the history of the United States, according to the U.S. Department of Justice has been charged for them is threats against a presidential candidate, and possession of firearms illegally conspiring to steal weapons .. (4)
Obama's attention Brotherhood
The newspaper ( American Thenker ) States maintain that the Muslim Brotherhood has succeeded in penetrating the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama and impenetrable.
The Asahvivh America that " Michelle Obama "the wife of U.S. President Barack Obama had been introduced to organizations relief led by members of the Muslim Brotherhood and that in the early preoccupation with Obama and his wife, political action, at the beginning of the political work for Obama and his wife, and the wife of Barack Obama has admitted more From a press briefing that they have benefited directly from the political ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood , as was Mrs. Michelle Obama dealing with Islamic Relief Organization in the United States, an organization composed of members of the Muslim Brotherhood , was inaugurated at the end of July last year, the White House announced the partnership of the new organization with the American Center for faith-based partnerships and dialogue, and the organization pledged to host 50 representatives of religions as part of the initiative of the wife of President Obama .
The newspaper reported that the Federal Bureau of Investigation confirmed that at least three activists of the Muslim Brotherhood were able to penetrate and break the Obama administration .
The newspaper pointed out that there had been some warnings to the federal government infiltration of some members of the group "Muslim Brotherhood" which is described as a radical within the American system, at a time when President Obama was addressing the Muslim Brotherhood and tries attract the attention نشطائهم.
The paper said that "the Islamic Society of North America" is one of the organizations the main front of the group, the Muslim Brotherhood , which does not accept the leadership of any practices Islamic beyond the scope of dissemination of Islam from Saudi Arabia or by the group, and said that the Muslim Brotherhood published " Islam political ", where the mixed group religion and politics To get an effective challenge of democratic pluralism , as well as "terrorism" who Arjrnh, in the words of the newspaper.
The Muslim Brotherhood is the largest Islamic groups in the whole world where there are about 100 countries around the world, and the group take the work out of political, social and other activities of civil and peaceful way to change .. (5)
Development outlook after the revolution of January 25
Egyptian uprising enters its third week, it is still an important question on the table in Washington: Is the Obama administration are in direct contact with the Muslim Brotherhood ?
Will accept the group as part of the new Egyptian government? The answer instant that largely exceeded the Obama administration is the fine line that separates the permitted and forbidden, there are multiple reports indicate that the United States had been in contact Brotherhood years ago and officials of the White House in the era of Obama became open more and more towards the post group in the new government Once the resignation of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak , has praised Obama's Muslim Brotherhood and describing them as organizers, too, and explained the Washington Post published today that the group enjoys images mixed in the United States; On the one hand there are those who are viewed as structured Islamic hostile to the West could be his wing extremist very dangerous on if the U.S. dominated the government, on the other hand, there are those who consider a group of elderly revolutionaries who should play an important role in any coalition government is established in Egypt - to be a minority within it - and enjoy the support of 30% of the Egyptian people at the most.
For American officials who are trying to manage the future of Egypt are quiet from afar without provoking violent reactions, perhaps longer post the Muslim Brotherhood is necessary, perhaps even inevitable Also, contrary to this possibility with the perceptions of many of the political forces local U.S.; fears of groups loyal to Israel toward the emergence of an Islamic regime in the region, to potential criticism from conservatives that Obama has failed to stop the spread of Islamic fundamentalism, so from the White House released a massive iceberg of mysterious messages, either to reporters or to private groups.
When the press secretary of the White House, Robert Gibbs told reporters that any shift to democracy "must include a full range of political forces, the task is secular job ", as it should," featuring voices and opposition parties in this process with our approach towards the holding of free and fair elections, "has Many sought from pro -Israel groups to obtain assurances that the male does not mean the Muslim Brotherhood .
At the end of last week, said Daniel B Shapiro, an official with the National Security Council the U.S., that the policy of the United States to prevent dialogue with the Muslim Brotherhood , according to a report published by the agency (Jewish Telegraph) Judaism, and whether the group will participate in the formation of the new government in Egypt , was quoted agency quoted Shapiro as saying: "Something like this will be determined by the Egyptian people just ... will not mediate the United States."
But White House officials, including Obama himself, were ambiguous about this matter, which indicated that they are open to the participation of the Muslim Brotherhood without having to declare it openly, in a meeting with Fox News, Wind Obama skillfully about the questions asked on the group, it has He said: "There is something you must understand is that there are a full range of secularists in Egypt , and there is a full range of educators and civil society in Egypt want to be in also provided .. It is important for us to avoid saying: The two options the only ones we have are: either Muslim Brotherhood or the oppression of the Egyptian people. "
In answer to a question about whether it would like to see the Muslim Brotherhood in the Egyptian government, said Obama : "What I want is a representative government, and I am sure that if you move Egypt towards democracy in the process of a gradual shift, we will find that there is a government can deal with her partner ".. (6)
The position Obama of تقربة for the Muslim Brotherhood and understanding of the principles and ideas reactions against Barack Obama and criticizing him, and Rod did in favor of the position of the Muslim Brotherhood .
Reactions in favor of Obama in his view of the Muslim Brotherhood
Issued a democracy project in the Middle East (Bhumid) - a non-profit organization has received support from the U.S. State Department - A new study entitled: "The move towards an integrated strategy for the promotion of democracy and human rights in Egypt , "the writer's Gregory. Avtandeljan, who has worked for about thirty years as an analyst for the Egyptian affairs in the U.S. State Department, in addition to his work as a consultant for many of the House of Representatives in the Senate and House of Representatives of the Americans.
The study calls for officials in the Obama administration to establish a channel of communication open with the Muslim Brotherhood on the grounds that the United States can not claim that they support pluralism without the acceptance of the political representation of the largest opposition force in the country.
In addition to the section on the issue of Islamic study addresses several other points, including: the nature of the Egyptian-American relations, and why should the United States encourages political reform in Egypt ? And problems resulting from the policy of the previous administration of President George W. Bush , and lessons learned, and an integrated strategy for the United States to promote democracy and human rights in Egypt .
The author points to the existence of strategic relations with Egypt since the Camp David treaty the late seventies of the twentieth century, and that the priorities differed at the beginning of this period for its conclusion as concentrated in the beginning about the Egyptian role in the region to lead the settlement between the Arab states and the state of the Zionist occupation, then focused on the democracy in the last decade under the conditions of political and economic conditions experienced by Egypt ; which prompted the United States to adopt programs on democracy and human rights by the USAID and the initiative of the Middle East Partnership (MEPI), announced by President Bush in 2002 .
Following his arrival to the presidency beginning of the year 2009, President Barack Obama announced that support for freedom and democracy in the forefront of American policy during the period of his presidency, and explain the study by saying that there are demands popular with democracy even improve the political environment serves good governance and the Egyptian economy crisis, but did not address Islamic factor here, and that seems to be standing behind and enters the new strategy at the same time as one of the elements where you go other U.S. studies that promote democracy and support liberal currents will reduce the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamist movements in Egypt and promote political reform in the country.
The author adds that the survival of the situation as it is is unacceptable because, for example, in the year 2008 caught about 323 demonstration and strike from various groups and movements of labor, peasant and student and political .. Etc., which may bring to mind the period prior to the 1952 revolution that led to the revolution and make profound changes in domestic and foreign policy for Egypt .
Perhaps the most important reason, which refers to the writer is that the promotion of democracy in Egypt, serving in that stability in Egypt and the national interest of the U.S. alike, as the support of authoritarian rule angers Egyptians and Arabs, while reinforcing support for democracy and human rights credibility of the United States in general, and thus facilitates the settlement of the conflict Arab-Zionist.
Under the headline issue of Islamic study suggests that the question of approaching the United States toward the Muslim Brotherhood dominates all discussions related to political reform in Egypt, as they prepare the group of opposition political largest in the country, according to the index electoral during the last parliamentary elections in 2005 , where they get about 20 percent of the seats, and it was possible to increase the number of deputies in the absence of government intervention in the second and third phases of voting.
Since that time, take the Egyptian government procedures continues toward the group was the most important: the constitutional amendments spring of 2007 , which makes it impossible for the group contest the upcoming presidential election one of the candidates, in addition to it - any government - put pressure on U.S. officials are always in order not to interview members of the group, even These young staff who were asking to meet with leaders of the group in the past.
The study calls for foreign officials and the new U.S. administration to establish a channel of communication open with the Muslim Brotherhood on the grounds that the United States can not claim that it supports the social and political pluralism without the acceptance of the political representation of the largest opposition force in the country.
The author tries to explain this requirement for the Obama administration by saying: The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt does not use violence as a mechanism such as Hamas and Hezbollah , as well as the U.S. administration to open channels of dialogue with the peaceful Islamic movements in other countries as Iraq , Yemen and Morocco .
But what is the agenda of the dialogue between the Obama administration and the Muslim Brotherhood ?
The previous dialogues focused on obtaining information from the community about their positions different - according to interpretations of U.S. officials to the Egyptian government - the study Bhumid Vetodh that the goal is to support democracy and human rights is not on the integration of the group in Egyptian political life, but from the point of establishing a dialogue about the rights of minorities and women, including contributing to clarify the positions of the group directly in such cases and lead to the removal of misunderstanding about American politics and thereby increase the credibility of the United States about political reform in Egypt and around.
Also, the upcoming dialogue will address encourage the efforts of members of parliament from the Muslim Brotherhood regarding strategies to promote good governance and combat corruption, and in this framework can increase the relationships and dialogues between the group and the Congress among U.S. House of Representatives in the U.S. Congress.
And there is a possibility that members of the group rejects these meetings to ideological and political reasons - as expected by the author - and here lawmakers must send a message to those that engage in the framework of this dialogue programs at any time they want in the future!
Not only dialogue required between lawmakers from both parties, or between U.S. officials and leaders of the group, but you must open the door to the members of the group to participate in programs to support democracy and attendance at conferences and workshops in the United States and Egypt, which Siksdha course, the presence of a variety of intellectual currents and other political to support the issue of political reform and the participation of the Muslim Brotherhood , indirectly but impressive.
In the proposed strategy to support and promote political reform and human rights in Egypt author of the study adopts seven recommendations are:
- Change the tone: to adopt a balanced tone of U.S. policy supports the rights of all Egyptians and their political forces.
- Establish a strategic dialogue with the Egyptian government: and through the establishment of a forum with the task to discuss problems and issues of reform behind closed doors.
- Use of effective tools for promoting reform: by displaying a diverse basket of economic and trade incentives in order to encourage reform Cairo.
- Launch effective programs for Democracy: focus on civil society and especially independents activists who are not allied with the government or belonging to opposition movements (Islamic).
- Strengthen institutional cooperation.
- Working with Europe: in order to search for new opportunities on dialogue and reform initiatives.
- Communication and dialogue with opposition movements: Among those peaceful Islamic movements, especially the Muslim Brotherhood.
- The study concludes by emphasizing the importance of balancing support for political reform and human rights in Egypt on the one hand, and the lack of a threat to U.S. interests in the long term in the region, on the other hand, which dictates that adopts the United States that the strategy for reform in the framework of bilateral relations of America - Egyptian .. ( 7)
- As there was a barrage of criticism for Barack Obama in good relationship with the Brotherhood and his understanding of the correct political approach of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Rod did oppose Obama in his view of the Muslim Brotherhood
Criticized the newspaper « The Washington Times »U.S. President Barack Obama said that he has contributed significantly to the weakening of U.S. foreign policy, which did not come out his policy for the broad lines represented in three specific elements are: to encourage the enemies of his country, and the marginalization of the links with friends and weaken the economy, and can not say that The results of this policy due to incompetence, but are the result of decisions taken and approved by himself.
The newspaper added that the team Obama declaring readiness to dialogue with the group the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt confirms continued his approach, because «America does not have an enemy deadly more than Brotherhood , Vuthaúq group revealed by the U.S. Department of Justice in the trial of Association of the Holy Land emphasizes the pursuit group to impose its ideology of political, military and legal on the United States ».
The newspaper said that the document emphasizes planned progress and clandestine group, the Muslim Brotherhood , then the use of violence to seize on the government and pave the way for the succession of Islamic and said «this sounds crazy or is doable, but it is not, especially when we see the Obama administration dialogue group رغم intentions this».
The newspaper gave examples of what it deems a threat embodied in re- Egypt relations with both Iran and Hamas , and the welcome extended to Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi in Tahrir Square, Cairo b .. (8)
He also accused one of the most prominent symbols of neo-conservatives in the United States, U.S. President Barack Obama that his call for respect for Islam will do to embrace Islamic law , and adopted the ideas of the Muslim Brotherhood .
Said Frank Gaffney, president and founder of the "Center of security policies," one of the main institutions of neo-conservatism: The repetition of President Obama to declare his intention to establish a "new relationship" with the Muslim world will mean in the end "embrace the agenda of the Muslim Brotherhood," which aims to implement Islamic law.
He said Gaffney, in an article published by "Jewish World Review," which is one of the most important platforms neoconservative loyalists for " Israel "- According to the newspaper" The Seventh Day "-" The mission of the Islamic Sharia is the destruction of Western civilization from within, as he claimed.
He said Gaffney, a former official in the administration of President Ronald Reagan, "Mr. Obama , as part of his campaign to "respect Islam "will travel to Turkey early April , and there will not be shown respect only for an Islamic government did not only change the course of all the institutions of the traditions of secularism of Kemal Ataturk , put it fully on the path toward Islamization, but will also participate in the so-called "coalition of civilizations, which is sponsored by the United Nations, and reflects the views of the Organization of the Islamic Conference."
The Obama has confirmed that he will direct speech special for Muslims, the Islamic capital major, to translate the policy of "extending the hand of friendship" to the Muslim world, and strengthen the relationships that were set up by the United States with him, and considered Obama that the United States is "ready to launch a new partnership based on mutual respect and mutual interests "with the Islamic world.
For his part, called " the World Association of Muslim Scholars, " Obama to fulfill his promises for "change" the traditional view of the Muslim world, said in a statement: The change is not through a public relations campaign, or logos abstract, but through "historic reconciliation" means termination All grievances, and erase from memory all the negative stereotypes, as well as the need to "apologize" for historical injustices "organization" from whatever source.
The statement pointed out that successive U.S. administrations can not look for a map of the broad Islamic only through hole "Israel."
Gaffney also claimed co-author of the book " Islamic fascism "and known to frequent his attack on Islam that the Muslim Brotherhood became the driving force within the Organization of the Islamic Conference , said that "many of the American Muslim organizations representing the interface to the Muslim Brotherhood.
Gaffney said, "The clear desire on the part of the Obama administration to embrace the agenda of the Muslim Brotherhood , in part, if not entirely, made on American- Islamic organizations "compatible" with the group bolder, "he said.
Gaffney concluded his article by saying, "The message should be: Friends of the Muslim Brotherhood are not friends of America, and siRNA behind us in danger, ".. (9)
Came the final say in that case that the Institute Brokenjr Research, a month the Institute of American political featuring elite political thinkers in favor of the Muslim Brotherhood and objecting to how the injustice that was subjected to the group throughout the history of إضهاد, torture and fraud by Arab governments, also supported the Institute closer to Obama for the Muslim Brotherhood Muslims .
Brokenjr Institute ended the dispute in the interest of the Muslim Brotherhood
The report issued by the Institute, "Brookings" American, and prepared by the researcher status "Saban" for Middle East Policy Shadi Hamid, under the title "reaction Islamists toward repression .. Do you resort groups Islamic ruling to "extremism"? ", supportive and encouraging Obama's position in closer to the Muslim Brotherhood .
And the report practical steps he must manage Obama introduced, most notably reaffirmed publicly the right of all parties opposition including Islamists , especially the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Jordan , to participate in the upcoming elections and reaffirm the right of all political groups "non-violent" to participate in the process campaign.
The report also recommended allowing the American embassies to return to dialogue with the Islamists , after nearly a decade of decision of the administration of former U.S. President George W. Bush and the Muslim Brotherhood to stop the dialogue between the two parties in the wake of the September 2001 attacks .
The report spoke of the channels of dialogue open may allow the United States some influence on the strategies followed by the Islamists , and especially with regard to participation in the elections.
The report acknowledged that the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt , Jordan, and fell victim to "manipulate" the results of the last election.
He reviewed the reform initiative launched by the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt in 2004 and considered it a "milestone in the political development process in the group they represent an attempt to raise the issue of democracy and other political forces gathering around a common vision for change. "
He said the U.S. report that for the first time declares that group faith in the parliamentary system, and the right of the party winning the largest number of votes to form a government.
The report also exposed to the experience of the Muslim Brotherhood to Jordan and boycott of the elections in 1997 and their return to participate in 2003 , "and they get 17 seats and win a majority of votes."
He also pointed to the reform program announced by the group in 2005 , describing the report as "far-reaching expression of the new orientation of the Islamic movement to focus on democratic reform."
He reviewed the decision Brothers Jordan to boycott the elections that will take place this year after being accused the government of rigging the elections in 2007 , according to the report, the elections without the participation of the Islamists "will reduce the legitimacy and opens the door to Salafist groups to fill the vacuum" .. (10)
Obama months books
1 - Dreams From My Father: A Story of Race and Earth ( 1995 ).
1 - About Barack Obama as the Washington Report site.
3 - Obama and the Muslim world: a break with the reductive vision .... the prospects for a new partnership.
4 - Obama's speech and US-Iranian relations: motionless tactical or strategic shift? site bridge for dialogue with the Islamic world.
5 - newspaper ( American Thenker ) American province.
7 - Project on Middle East Democracy (Bhumid) of the writer's Gregory. Avtandeljan.
8 - newspaper The Washington Times America.
9 - Gaffney, in an article published by "Jewish World Review," which is one of the most important platforms neo-conservatives loyal to " Israel "- according to the newspaper" seventh day . "
10 - Serafin, Peter, "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics", Honolulu Star-Bulletin, March 21, 2004, Retrieved April 13, 2008 .